Meanwhile the classical school of singing has all but lost its roots. The traditional language of singing still exists but not many know how to translate it. Singing fundamentals have become subjective. In past times teachers had different methods of achieving the fundamentals, but they generally agreed on what was good technique. The acoustic signature necessary to sing with a large orchestra was recognized by all experienced teachers. But now there is debate even about what a viable sound is.
By the time I graduate from white sash, I will have done thousands of push-ups and jumping-jacks and crunches, and will have practiced my series of stances and punches and blocks hundreds of times with intensity. A good deep stance is fundamental and is practiced for a life-time by the greatest masters.
1) How many times must the correct scales be done until the muscles of the throat and the body coordinate to produce an efficient, powerfully resonant tone consistently? Thousands of times! And thousands more to upkeep! I love it when after basic scales the student says: "wow! That was a workout!" Not because there is tension in the throat, but rather because there is balanced tension throughout the body--that often the quadruceps (yes in the legs) contract to support the proper production of a strong tone.
2) What are the fundamentals? Like every instrument, vibration (vocal folds for singers), actuation (breathstream for singers) and resonance (vocal tract for singers)
- Vibration: There is an axiom that says "sing with your body and not your throat!" Like everything in singing, this also is a paradox. The sensation of a passive throat requires proper function of the throat muscles that set up the vocal folds for vibration. The flexible balance of CT/TA determine the depth of the vocal folds and has a direct influence on the medial pressure (IA) that will result in a specific length of time for the vibration cycle, which in turn determines a specific frequency (pitch). The percentage of the cycle length that the folds are in the close phase (close quotient or CQ) determine how much breath pressure is build up. Then the length of the open phase must be long enough to allow the pressure to be released into sound pressure into the vocal tract. Too short a close quotient does not allow enough time to build appropriate pressure and the tone will sound weak and will lack intensity. This is fundamentally a breathy tone, although it may not sound particularly breathy. If the close quotient is too high, there will be intensity but there will not be enough time for the air to be released adequately. The sound pressure will be weak because not enough air will be released. The sub-glottal pressure would rise with every cycle and cause great strain on the larynx. The appropriate pressure/flow balance is what the old school teachers call "singing on the breath!" When the fold cover (the upper layers of the fold structure) close completely, there is a sensation that the tone is concentrated in front of the face.
- Actuation, the breath: Actuation simply refers to the mechanism that causes the vibration, whether the hammers of a piano striking the strings or the breath of a singer causing the vibration of the folds. The availability of the air that is to be pressurized beneath the folds is set up firstly by the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm, the most inervated muscle in the body. The function of the diaphragm is unconscious. It responds to our need to do specific work. However, the diaphragm and the other respiratory muscles must work in balance with the correctly set-up vocal folds to create the adequate pressure that is felt at the sternum. This sensation of pressure in the torso (chest voice) is the regulating tool of glottal closure. It the sensation of pressure in the chest is extremely high, it is a sign that fold closure is too tight, which means that fold depth is shallow, and that the vocalis muscle (internal TA) is not working enough to create the necessary fold depth. Too little pressure constitutes a loose phonation. Weak medial pressure (fold closure) results from the IA not contracting enough. But this is a result of a fold posture that is too deep. The interdepence of fold depth and closure is fundamental. Balanced air pressure is therefore a result of the diaphram's subtle function on the one hand, the fold posture in the other. In addition, the core musculature must provide a support system directly beneath the diaphragm such that air pressure is not lost at the lower side of the structure. This complex system creates the pressure beneath the folds that is called "appoggio" or "breath support". This second paradox of pressure/flow is of paramount importance to good singing. It is unfortunate when teachers say, there must be no pressure, only flow, advocating what is tantamount to a breathy sound; or when on the opposite side of the argument some say that pressure is necessary and there must be no loss of air, often advocating a pressed sound. Both arguments "sound" plausible, but each alone is inadequate. Both are necessary for balance.
- Resonance: The vocal tract must be set up specifically for resonance. Issues include, laryngeal depth, jaw release and quality of vowels (tongue and lip migrations). These articulators must coordinate to create the specific vocal tract set-up for each sung pitch. For a given pitch, the vocal tract must assume a specific shape (vowel) that will effect a complex series of sound waves in such a way as to produce the greatest sound pressure. The [a] sung on a Bb5 is a different shape than the one that is sung on the neighboring A5. In essence there is necessary vowel modification from one pitch to the next. Yet the axiom "sing pure vowels" is correct when understood. The singer must be able to concentrate on the desired vowel. The modification will be automatic if the fold posture is correct. When phonation is balanced it will require the vowel to conform to its needs. Hence the vowel will be changed even though the singer conceives of the vowel in its most recognizable (i.e. pure) form. This paradox of pure concept and modification induced by a balanced fold posture is of paramount importance to proper resonance management. Phonation (coordination of breath and folds) is interdependent with resonance (vocal tract adjustments).