Tuesday, August 31, 2010

Kashu-do (歌手道): Chiaroscuro: A Vocallic Approach

The concept of chiaroscuro (i.e. bright and dark) can be approached in many ways. Personally I prefer to approach it first from a phonation standpoint because the dark side of the balance can be misunderstood particularly when it is approached vocallically.  Vowels are often approached in terms of space: Throat space, back space, sinus space, etc. Each of these space sensations are problematic because the most common ways of sensing them are based in relative malfunction.

1. Back Space:  In my bass-baritone incarnation I relied greatly on sensations of backspace, as several of the teachers I had worked with talked about accessing this space. This sensation is however based on a lowering of the larynx resulting from a release of subglottal pressure through a slightly breathy phonation. The resulting sound is usual relatively hollow, lacking in brilliance, the bright side of the chiaroscuro balance.  I have since avoided this kind of space. The back space serves to me as a sign of a slight breathiness. It sounds warm and soft-edged to the singer's inner ear, but dull and lacking in presence to the outside listener.

2. Throat space: The space in the throat that  results from lowering the larynx can occur in several ways: a) depression of the back of the tongue, b) a yawning sensation resulting from breathiness or c) a balanced lowering resulting from flow-phonation. The latter is the one we seek and this provides acoustic support to the lower harmonics in the spectrum giving the proper darkness.

3) Sinus/mask space: Some singers swear by nasal resonance. There are two nasal experiences: a) the first is actual nasality which is a result of several possible phonation problems that lead to an excessive opening of the velar port. Dysfunctional nasality is usually accompanied by loose phonation. The good part of sensations in the mask/sinuses is reflective of the "twang" (not nasality) associated with the narrowing of the aryepiglottic fold that is responsible for the singer's formant. The latter, which we seek, includes good glottal closure as opposed to the breathy phonation in the former posture.  Also, true nasality (the one we do not want) is accompanied with a dull sound. How dull the sound gets depends on how loose the phonation is that produces the nasality.

If we can keep one rule, it is the and rule: "Neither does the presence of darkness mean the elimnation of brightness nor does the presence of brightness mean the elimination of darkness." The perception of light only occurs because of the existence of a lack thereof, as is the perception of darkness relative to our consciousness of the existence of light.  In singing (as in Kung Fu, says my Sifu), bright and dark are balancing complements, not opposites.

By utilizing both the brilliant twang associated with full glottal closure and with resonance sensations in the mask and darker color associated with the lowering of the larynx from flow phonation, we can accomplish a proper chiaroscuro balance.  So how does this relate to vowels? Quite simply, a vowel that is balanced in low and high harmonics can only occur when there is proper glottal closure and narrowing of the aryepiglottic fold to provide brilliance of the high harmonics and the glottal flow that allows the larynx to relax lower providing adequate space for support of lower harmonics. The balanced vowel, that is both bright and dark is the result.

In fact we must neither conceive of the vowel in an excessively wide way to achieve brightness nor an excessively deep way to achieve darkness. The brilliance occurs because of an efficient source tone combined with the ratio of the diameter of the erypiglottic fold to that of the vocal tract (the twang: at least a 1:6 ratio is necessary). Both of these aspects result from laryngeal function. Depth is accomplished from natural lowering of the larynx resulting from flow-phonation, also a laryngeal function.  In essence, the concept of vowels should be natural, neither too spread or too rounded. The glottal function as explained above provides the brilliance and depth referred to as chiaroscuro.

Whether a coloratura or a bass, good vocallic balance is possible even where extreme modification is necessary.  A balanced vowel requires first and foremost a balanced tone.

Here, the legendary bass, Kurt Moll sings very low and relatively high in his voice. From speech to singing there is no major adjustment. His lowest tones maintain a certain level of brilliance recognized in the vocallic quality. The top notes are not lacking in depth.

This particular performance of the second Queen of the Night aria is quite possibly the best in recorded history.  The same balance in Diana Damrau's speech is maintained in the singing.  One could argue that the speech is a little "belty" but one could call this a healthy belt.  Her speech is not what one expects of a coloratura, but it has an excellent balance of bright and dark. Her vowels are neither dull, lacking in brilliance nor strident, lacking in depth.

Having one's personal sense of vocallic balance could be one of the greatest influences on a singer's vocal coordination.

© 08/31/2010

Monday, August 23, 2010

Kashu-do (歌手道): Science update: PAS5

During my time teaching in Stockholm, I was able to attend some of the presentations at the PAS5 (Physiology and Acoustics of Singing, 5th Edition) Conference.  I am hoping that our frequent blog commentator, Martin Berggren will contribute to this edition since he was also in Stockholm for the conference and attended all the sessions.

We were all elated by the presentation of Wolfgang Saus, a German overtone singer who demonstrated how to have direct control of the vowel formants. He demonstrated precise control of the third vowel formant, a remarkable skill. He uses formant tuning to reinforce specific overtones, with which he could fashion a melody. The third formant has long been associated with the area around the tip of the tongue and the frenulum linguae.  Nevertheless, to have such precise control of  this resonance band is remarkable. If anything, Mr. Saus showed us that we classical singers are only scratching the surface of resonance control. It was exciting to see the possibilities of the instrument from the point of view of an overtone specialist.  Mr. Saus presented a workshop, which I was not able to attend due to teaching commitments.  I hope to meet him in Berlin when he comes there.

Alberto ter Doest presented a workshop on accessing the singers formant, using a very twangy production. The process included using the extreme twang in a simple melody and then singing normally while attempting to maintain the twangy quality, associated with the narrowing of the aryepiglottic fold.  The strategy follows recent scientific confirmation that a ratio of at least 1:6 between the circumference of the aryepiglottis and the circumference of the vocal tract produced a strong singer's formant. By narrowing the aryepiglottis, the singer will achieve the twang associated with the SF.

There were interesting presentations on two formant strategies in the male voice (no surprises here) by the great pioneer of vocal acoustics, Johann Sunberg and my excellent NYU colleague, Brian Gill. Brian also made an interesting study of Db5 sung by pop singer David Phelps to show that it is possible to use the high voice well in a non-classical mode.

I was sad to miss two talks on Electro-glottography given by two excellent pedagogue-scientists: Donald Miller of Voce Vista fame and the excellent Viennese voice teacher-biophysicist, Christian Herbst. Now that I reside officially in Europe and must spent more time there, I will visit my colleague Don Miller soon for some needed collaboration and I hope to visit Dr. Herbst soon to pick his magnificent brain. I found his commentary during the sessions most enlightning.

I was also very happy to meet Dr. Ron Scherer again  after a brief meeting some 10 years ago. Dr. Scherer is a very approachable man with a wealth of information that speak directly to the singers experience.  I hope to visit him at Bowling Green State University in Ohio and pick his brain as well.

The presentation that I found the most compelling was given by Pedro Amarante Andrade, a young Brasilian researcher based in England, entitled Analysis of the dynamic mechanisms behind VF muscle contraction in the chest-to-head passaggio.  Mr. Andrade summarized the study by explaining that the vocalis muscle does not become inactive across the muscular passaggio but rather switches its activity from an isotonic to isometric mode. In plain language, the vocalis maintains activity and provides stabilizing resistance to the lengthening of the vocal folds by the crico-thyroid muscle.  This antagonism provides longitudinal tension of the vocal folds, which help produce a quicker, "snapping" close phase of the folds with increased contact area.  Supposedly, this would maintain a richer source tone because of the greater fold mass and a slightly longer open phase, resulting in greater air flow per cycle, yielding greater sound pressure.  There was no measurement of subglottic pressure.  I would predict that subglottic pressure would reduce in comparison with a production whereby CT activity was less opposed by Vocalis.

This is in short what I have been arguing for the past three years.  I have encountered two many tenors in particular who resort to a thin production in the top voice resulting in a monochromatic mode of accessing the top that overtime produces a glottal squeeze. This is symptomatic of many a Rossini tenor of our day.  The falsetto-like approach to the top voice, with less contact area of the vocal folds is not a finished product.  This is what I have labeled my "little voice". With training, the little voice can become fuller (i.e. the CT becomes more able to sustain the isometric resistance of the Vocalis without compromising fold length.). This is perhaps why Pavarotti refers to himself as the first "real tenor voice" to sing the Fille du régiment aria in the original key.  This thinner production also produces a slightly raised larynx making acoustic transition to second formant dominance difficult, since the high larynx raises the first formant, maintaining it dominant across the passaggio.

It is important to keep in mind that the CT maintains a relative dominance after the muscular passaggio, but this musuclar dominance is not unopposed.  I would further theorize that in the lower half of the voice, where the Vocalis has a relative dominance, that the CT also very much involved. A dynamic antagonism between the two main muscle groups is crucial to homogeneity throughout the modal range.  This used to be the goal of great singers of previous generations until idiosyncracies in the voice have become a quick marketing tool for record producers and agents.  It is my hope that Mr. Amarante-Andrade's research mark the beginning of further investigations that will give more objective information on the relationship between muscular balance and longevity in classical singing.

© 08/23/2010

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Monday, August 9, 2010

Kashu-do (歌手道): Micaela von Gegersfeldt: A Treasure in Stockholm

Today was my day off from teaching in Stockholm and I intended to do little other than sight-seeing. My host/student, the tenor, Nikola Matisichad introduced me to Micaela von Gegersfeldt (pronounced like the German equivalent, Jägersfeld), a former ballet and flamenco dancer who developed a system of body work geared specifically for singers. Throughout my career I have worked with experts in Alexander and Feldenkreis Techniques, Pilates and Yoga.  All these disciplines have been helpful. However, as I have developed a technical approach that is meant to be as gentle as it is invasive, it has been important to find a fundamental approach, relative to physical and mental fitness and awareness, which supports the balance of the vocal instrument.  With Kung Fu/Tai Chi, I have found a proven system that develops the individual's mind as it does the body.  However, a singer needs a level of physical awareness that must be keen but subtle. If Kung Fu/Tai Chi has prepared me for this level of balance, Micaela's work has raised my awareness to a very high level, to genuinely feeling the entire body as a singing instrument in a very powerful but fundamentally gentle way.  It is one thing to theoretically know this. It is an entirely different thing to experience it, not as a fleeting experience but a lasting state of body and mind that seems as clear as it is enigmatic.

Today we taught a lesson together.  It is a very rare and afffirming experience to encounter another person who has developed entirely differently, but whose process fits together entirely and synergically with mine. It was a singular privilege to work so closely with someone I can genuinely call colleague, who so completely inspired my trust in such a short time.  It was my privilege to experience this dance. I knew when to take a backseat and let Micaela work and when to bring my own input to the fore, all in the service of the singer. It was as if we had been teaching together for years. Mr. Matisic, a very experienced singer was equally elated with the session.

Micaela's technique is rooted in a profound knowledge of muscular dynamics, an intimate knowledge of anatomy and a refined sensory awareness of energy flow during the act of performing. She has also had close working relationships with the great singers of Sweden's exalted operatic tradition.

After leaving accademia, I am very wary of colleagues. It is not easy to win my trust. I do not give it easily.  For that reason, I embarked on my quest for my tenor voice without a formal teacher. I trust the ears of a couple of my very advanced students who have pedagogical gifts or highly developed sensory perceptions. Other than they, this is the only person I would trust 100% with my own singing. With her help, my technical approach and indeed my own singing can only get better.  I look forward to working closely together with Micaela  von Gegersfeldt.

I was also fortunate to have a lovely tour of Stockholm with Micaela as my guide after our wonderful work together this afternoon.  The truth is as totally distinguishable from the rest as water from sand to the thirsty traveler. I recommend Micaela highly to my European colleagues as she works a lot in the region and in particular in Sweden and Denmark.  It is my hope to be able to introduce her to the New York scene very soon.

© 08/09/2010

Sunday, August 8, 2010

Kashu-do (歌手道): Toward the Final Stretch

As I wrote on the last post, Patience is indispensable to any kind of true progress.  Some of us have been waiting a long time and are just sick of it. But just when we start thinking that three years is a long time to struggle with a ridiculous vocal change, then satisfying steps begin to happen. After my paradisical teaching experience on Klädesholmen during which time my voice chose to literally go on vacation, it seems that it was more a period of necessary hibernation.  Indeed since the day I arrived in Stockholm my voice has decided to awake from its slumber and came out to play. No, none of this is arbitrary as I jokingly try to make it appear. The product of three years of targeted muscular retraining is indeed promising and gives me great hope for the next short while. This is all happening while the members of my posse of tenors-who-formerly-sang-baritone are all experiencing important strides. One is singing Merry Widow, another one is preparing Lensky and a third is being compared to Richard Tucker.  Not bad for a bunch of false baritones who a while ago might have taught themselves (and certainly me) crazy for embarking on this road less traveled!

The main reason for sharing these short clips is to discuss the process of muscular training. In sports, athletes who spend many months getting in shape will experience a final period of exponential growth when suddenly they seem to get stronger every day and have increased stamina as well. When I first begin Kung Fu anew, a few months ago, I could not do more than 20 push-ups in one set. But now I push myself to try 50. Likewise, for quite a while, A4 felt like the most difficult note in my voice. I felt that my top notes depended in great part on how well I can sing that note. The first clip I share is a 50 second clip of the difficult part of the aria "L'anima ho stanca" from Cilea's Adriana Lecouvreur.  Far from a final product in my estimation. I am happy  to be able to sustain the A4 comfortably and long. This is a sign of new stamina I did not have a month ago.

But real strength includes the ability to be able to flexibly play with dynamics, and this is something I am only beginning to experience. With greater strength will come the flexibility (non-rigidity) that the Italians refer to as morbidezza.  Here Franco Corelli shows how it is done.

 It is important to know that the great singers of previous generations built strong voices, whereas in our time, we are often satisfied with the ability to simply coordinate the voice. I taught a fabulous baritone today who made a very important point. He said that many singers get cast based on an audition where they demonstrate they can sing the main arias. But often no one thinks about whether they will make it through the grueling rehearsal process. Indeed the rehearsal period is where a singer finds out how ready they are to do battle with difficult pieces.

Along with my stronger longer but not yet refined A4 came also a new more balanced sustained B4. For this I chose to practice different Bs to improve strength. One such B is "la vita mi costasse, ti salverò" from the first act of Tosca.  Pavarotti called it a very difficult note. Again I sustained it as long as felt comfortable to see how much stamina I had. I will take a bit of time before it becomes morbide but I feel  on my way with this note.

What is interesting is that despite a pretty long B, the C5 just one semitone higher requires its own specific muscular setup. So although I was able to sustain it a few days ago, it is not a note I could depend on sustaining.  I attempted to sustain two different Cs: the cadenza in the cavatina, "meco all'altar di Venere" from  Norma and "Gli enigmi sono tre" in the Turandot-Calaf duet.

I share these clips simply to show the developing steps toward a fully strengthened voice.  I taught a young tenor I have been working with for the last year today and it was inspiring to here what a well-supported full-voiced C#5 sounds like. I will ask him to send it to me and I will post it here. Experiencing his development with the top notes gave me a great deal of hope. The path is clear to these notes but it is simply a matter of strength and that takes time. Getting to work with the many fully formed voices here in Sweden is both inspiring and humbling. It gives one a much better sense of what a final product should sound like.  I am very happy to "...be in the fray" as George Shirley would often say, but the battle is far from over. I am winning it though!

© 08/08/2010

Friday, August 6, 2010

Kashu-do (歌手道): On Patience: Good Things Come To Those Who Wait and Who Have a Support System

As much as I would like to give Sweden credit for everything good that is happening to me right now because  I have fallen in love with this beautiful country, it would not be accurate. Yes I love Sweden and I will not chose between Göteborg and Stockholm. I love both cities very much. I am happy that the most rewarding part of my development as singer and teacher is happening here. But none of this could have happened without the Faith of my early students in New York who trusted me before I could demonstrate with my own voice what I meant for them to do. In no particular order, Adam, Jenny, Ross, Sara, Amber, Patrick, George; Beth, Rachel, Miles and Brooke who took long trips to come see me.  And of course I thank all of my current students in the USA and Europe without whom I would not be able to subsist.

Between the paradisical experiences on Klädesholmen, during which my voice seemed to have taken a hyatus and the quiet splendor of Stockholm, it seems that so much has found its place.  I keep waiting to wake up one morning to find my voice uncooperative because I sang too much the day before, between my own practice and the many lessons I teach. But on the contrary, I wake up to a new day on which my voice regenerates and seems in some ways stronger than the previous day.  I am not surprised! I expected I would eventually be able to recover faster from practices as I get stronger, but the growth seems exponential, like a snowball rolling down a hill, become stronger and faster as it reaches bottom. I have recorded less in the past few months. I havegotten  to know my voice with three years of conscious directed practice. But I wish I had recorded the Norma high C that I sang today. For the first time, clear as a bell, full-bodied and sustained.  Even though I knew the day would come, there is this question: "How did I get here?"

But don't worry, my tenor head has not gotten so big.  After what seemed a dreamy high C, I sang several that were good but I could not sustain them. This means I have more work ahead of me. My mezza voce has improved a lot, but there still a few little holes to fill.  I am not done yet, but I am so extremely happy having gotten to the point where my new tenor voice is consistent from day to day.  After 5 hours of teaching and practicing, I could still show a young dramatic tenor how to properly sing a Bb. For me that is something! Something, because three years ago, I put all my baritone exploits in a box and started from zero, to the many voices that thought I was crazy, except for those who have always been there: Sandro, George Shirley, Judy Nicosia-Civitano (I don't tell you enough how much I respect and love you)!

The truth is, now finding myself at the other side of my journey from false baritone to true tenor, although I went at it alone, I was never alone.  My team of tenors-who-previously-sang-as-baritone accompanied me on this journey.  They supported me, challenged me, encouraged me, even as they trusted me to teach them.  My dear coach Sandro, was never afraid to tell me that although I had improved there were still some baritone qualities to my voice. And my current students would tell me that they could not understand how I could sing such a secure high F5 or that one was impressed with the balance of a C#5 that I thought was just mezza voce. And nothing in this lifetime could be achieved without the faithful support of my mother and sisters, who remain my greatest cheerleaders.

Beyond my personal development, Sweden also saw my maturation as a teacher. I have valued Sweden since  I first became serious about singing, through the magnificence of Nicolai Gedda (What I would not give to meet this man!).  I saw myself being a confident guide to some of the finest singers I have ever heard and equally so to the young singer who comes with doubts and questions.  Truthfully, I was a little scared coming to the land of Birgit and Jüssi and Set and Nicolai.  But when the moment came, I was able to do my job and realized that the land of Erik and Meta and Olof and Nikola and Niklas and Matilda and Katija and Per, etc, was very welcoming to this "journeyman"!

For this maturation, I must thank my new teacher, Sifu Romain of Romain Kung Fu. Not only the classes, but the many conversations we have had have reinforced the philosophical component of my teaching. I needed that piece of the puzzle.  My Kung Fu work has had a profound influence on my teaching. Now complexity and simplicity are one.

Yet, I am able to be worthy of Sweden because of Berlin, New York, Boston and even Greenville, North Carolina and Gainesville Florida and Logan Utah, those many places that saw my beginnings and middles as a teacher.

Still, the greatest thanks goes to my aunt, Jacqueline who sang to me since I was a somber child:

"Ecolier malheureux, sois patient! Un jour tu seras un homme, mon ami.  Alors tu grandiras, la vie te sourira.  Ecolier malheureux, sois patient!" 

Thank you, Tatie, for teaching me patience with a song!

© 08/06/2010

Tuesday, August 3, 2010

Kashu-do (歌手道): Every-day Fundamentals For All Levels

Some places influence clarity of thought and my times in Sweden have been very special in that regard. Gothenburg holds a special place in my heart. It is the first place I visited in Sweden. Klädesholmen on Tjörn was very special indeed as I shared in the last post. My first visit to Stockholm continues my love affair with the land of song. Sweden has enough singers of high quality to populate most of the professional opera houses in the world. It is not by accident that this land of roughly 9 millions inhabitants has a disproportionate number of high level singers at the upper rungs of the operatic ladder. My pedagogical trips to Sweden have been arranged by two of my students in particular. Their excellent planing have made it possible for me to work with singers of many levels from college age to some of the highest level singers on the international stage. It is this aspect that has given me particular clarity about my own pedagogy. By alternating between a young singer and a top professional I became keenly aware that it is the fundamentals that remain constant between a beginner and the most accomplished professional. The difference between them, on a purely technical level, can be reduced thus: the degree to which the professional has mastered the fundamentals and the beginner not.

1) Meditative or pendular breathing to clear the mind: I begin my day with meditative breathing. I first came across this in yoga and then again in Kung Fu. We experience deep breathing in our sleep, but often miss out on this wonderful tool in our daily existence. It has become instinct for me in moments of tension, nervousness and even in problem-solving to begin my taking a slow, deep breath through the nose, through a relaxed throat (such that the breath is not noisy), allowing the lower abdomen to expand unobstructed and then release the breath through the nose again, just as gently as it was taken in. I am almost unaware when intake begins, when it ends and exhalation takes over and when inhalation begins again. It feels like a pendulum. The reversal is almost imperceptible.

 The soft concentration it takes for this has the effect of really clearing the mind.  Each breath becomes a renewal, and this eventually becomes a part of the singing process.

2) Fold posture or the little voice: When I was in my late teens and took singing seriously for the first time, I remember being very proud of being able to take what I then called my falsetto all the way through my range (Indeed, if I have a pedagogical advantage, it might be because I have very clear and detailed memories of how I used to sing and what I used to think). I also remember this to have been a confirmation that my voice was in good shape on a given day.

I have since determined that the little voice is not falsetto at all but a quiet, efficient modal posture. Even in the days when I thought this was falsetto, a coach who lived in the same building I did some years ago told me she could hear me clearly two floors above and thought that should be the foundation for my full voice. I told her then that I agreed but did not know how to grow this voice to full without a break. In fact there was a big break beyond mezzo piano. Additionally, I had heard some years before that one cannot grow from falsetto to full voice, but could grow from a quiet head voice to full voice. I have determined that a singer with the right kind of muscular strength can do either or both or neither.

However to be able to grow the quiet clear voice to full volume without a break or wiggle (muscular instability) is the ultimate goal.  This ability to grow from pianissimo to fortissimo and back is the first exercise in Rossini's technique book called Gorgheggi e solfeggi.

My first recommendation is therefore to find the child voice! The clear, effortless sound. As we hear here from the legendary Nicolai Gedda in Magische Töne:

It would be a terrible mistake to think of this voice as falsetto. Indeed Gedda was able to crescendo to full at anytime from this sound. The inability to grow this sound to full is not proof of a poor set-up but rather a confirmation that the correct muscular set-up has not been developed. The light high C I posted here a month or so ago is no longer so light, but it maintains its lyrical quality. I have now let go totally of the heavier approach to my voice.  The fullest sound I make must come from this lyrical set-up.  I will post a fuller high C in the next couple of days. In the meantime, how full a voice can get from building the little sound is demonstrated wonderfully here by this dramatic soprano, who confirms that a large voice does not have to lose its lyric quality, nor lose flexibility in the top range. Her corrected approach to D6 shows how she grows from the little voice. The Eb6 is quite exciting!


3) Building strength with occluded consonants: I have written extensively here about the benefits of using occlusion as in the consonants [v,z, m, n, etc], lip trills and rolled r.  Our scientist friends have shown without a doubt that supra-glottal inertia produces an acoustical environment that assists in the efficient transformation of sub-glottal pressure into trans-glottal flow. In simple language, these consonants help maintain a healthy balance between necessary air pressure below the vocal folds and the flow through the same, resulting a sustainable equlibrium. Our excellent soprano above followed her little voice warm-up with chromatic scales on [z]. She began with the softest, clearest tone on [z], crescendoed to full on the first note and continued chromatically to the upper octave and back.

This is a healthy way of challenging the healthy set-up of the little voice to see how much breath pressure it can sustain without over-pressurizing. The [z] when wel-coordinated prevents extreme build-up of sub-glottal pressure.

4) The [z] exercise is followed by chromatic scales on [zi] and then chromatic scales beginnng on [zi] then switching to [a], a difficult vowel to keep balanced.

This guarantees that the vowels will always have adequate breath pressure, which prevents too much medial pressure so that the fluid pressure/balance is maintained.

This basic sequence identifies a balanced posture at a soft dynamic, coordinates proper breath support through increasing pressure with [z], which in turn assures that there will be adequate breath support when the vowels are opened. The simple breathing exercise, not only prepares the body by elastic breath coordination, but serves as a tool to clear the singer's mind in case of nerves or distractions.

How far a singer takes these exercises depends on his/her level of coordination and strength. The inability to perform the clear little voice is a sign of systemic imbalance that must be addressed before true vocal coordination can be achieved.  In my late baritone phase, I had lost the ability to produce this little sound except for the very high range. Now it has returned and gets more and more vibrant at the softest dynamics as my total laryngeal strength has improved.

As in all disciplines, the basics must be revisited every day to avoid progressive degeneration of the process.

© 08/03/2010