In a laudable and responsible approach, these great pioneers concentrated on what they could affect through hard work and never concentrated on complaining against racism. It was tacitly understood that complaining would only bring retribution, so the best thing to do was simply to do the job as well as was possible. I believe this attitude was passed down to the latter generation. I know that I learned this from George Shirley, not in those specific words, but in is gentle demeanor and in the balanced and cool-headed way he approached everything. Perhaps it was influenced by Martin Luther King and the ideology of non-violence that was the understood philosophy of the time. I could never disrespect those heroes for their quiet perseverance. It is what they had to do to help put Black faces on the operatic stage (their own) and thereby inspire the generations after them to go further.
There is also a very paradoxical problem in calling out racism in the operatic field. I don't know a single Black singer who did not achieve his or her success without the support of White supporters, whether a patron who took real interest in them as artists and human beings, or a loving teacher, coach or conductor, or even the administrator of an Opera house. So how do you call racism out in those situations without offending the very people who support your rise and help maintain your progress?
When I recently posted some questions on my Facebook page regarding racism in Opera, not a single one of my working minority friends responded to the questions and I have many--from those who work at top houses all over the world to those who work at mid-level houses in Europe and regional houses in the United States. Considering the previous paragraph alone, I empathize with my colleagues' choice of just staying out of the conversation. Additionally, as a friend, a non-performer, who is close to these singers expressed, these singers do not wish to be linked to any conversation on social media about Race in Opera for fear of losing their jobs or losing their status in the mainstream.
As another friend of mine mentioned on my Facebook feed, the Metropolitan Opera (It is only normal to target the MET, because it sets the standards for how regional opera companies in the U.S. behave) lists its soloists roster for 2015-2016 including 272 singers with only 8 Blacks (3%) and 11 Asians (4%). The estimated percentage of Asians in the United States in 2015 is 4% while estimated percentage of Blacks in the United States is 13%. Asians are represented at the Metropolitan, Blacks are severely underrepresented. Yet equal representation is not the central question. The central question is whether the disparity has to do with tacitly accepted racist practices that are not addressed because everyone is afraid to open what could be a very uncomfortable Pandora's Box. Because the issue is so potentially volatile, no one within the Opera performing world is willing to address it. Consequently racist elements may exercise their poisonous activities in the guise of artistic realism by saying that such a singer does not look like what these characters might look like historically, for instance. A red-herring argument, as we have enough precedence to counter that posturing!
How then do we approach this issue? As is evident by the activity on my Facebook page, my fair-minded White colleagues are not afraid to speak about this, because they do not fear retribution. Perhaps some do for merely raising the question! The call to justice therefore is incumbent upon the Operatic establishment worldwide to make certain, once again that casting practices are not based on the composition of skin but rather on the content of character and the viability of the artistic talent. Criteria in opera are many! One singer can be dismissed because his diction is not perfect. Then one goes to a performance to find that the singer who is cast is severely vocally inadequate. When the singer dismissed for his diction is a Black or Asian singer, one must wonder if casting such a singer aside for diction is not simply a pretense for excluding a non-White singer.
Indeed operatic casting involves not only racism, but lookism of all kinds and homophobia. One colleague of mine explained that a friend of his was told point blank that he was a superior artist but he could not be cast because those who make the decisions were afraid he would be too effeminate onstage. An effeminate gay man can "butch it up" just as a heterosexual can easily play effeminate if they are good actors. However, a Black man or an Asian woman cannot change their race. That is what the make-up and costume crews are for: to help us transcend realism and get into a world of imagination. The issue of blackface and racist American minstrelsy have made the question of make-up deferring to the character's race problematic. Here we are putting the cart before the horse! I would prefer to see us deal with the problem of getting Black singers on stage because they are talented enough and deal with the issue of stage make-up after.
Indeed there is a lot of responsibility to be shared. What made the Verretts and Shirleys of the operatic world so beyond reproach was their exceptional musicianship and attention to details (linguistic, stylistic, stagecraft, physical fitness, etc). These singers were beyond reproach on so many levels. Singers of African decent must do their part to be as beyond reproach as one can be, such that nothing can be used against them. The administrations of opera houses must make a point of making sure that their casting directors do not practice race-based biases, inappropriate lookism, etc. This includes making operatic talent the main focus of their hiring policies and not nepotism with regards to their artistic leadership (i.e. conductors and directors). Productions that require decisions on a racial line where race is not of fundamental concern to the operatic plot must be frowned upon. The journalistic media must become more objective with regards to their critiques of productions. Too often, journalists become the sycophants and pawns in support of the houses they are supposed to critique and totally fail in their duties to question the artistic values of a production.
Casting agents in opera houses may be convenient but they are in a sense superfluous. The speed of life on our planet has increased to untenable levels and thus with regards to opera, conductors who should be making decisions for their production are too busy to make them and defer to casting directors and agents. Casting directors who are sometimes not appropriately competent to make casting judgments do, often relying on the judgments of friends who are agents to tell them which voice types are appropriate for a given role. The agents themselves sometimes do not know! Worse than that, the agents will attempt to get their singers in who may be charmingly inappropriate for the role in question. In other words, the conflict of interest between casting directors and favorite agents borders on blatant nepotism. What if one or both of such people have racist, misogynistic or homophobic bents? Their choices become unchecked and biased.
A propitiously timed article came out in defense of recent Wimbledon champion, Serena Williams and her sister Venus, commenting on the degree of disrespect and racial abuse these exceptional athletes have been subjected to in a sport that up until their dominating entry had been more or less a White sport. Sports like Tennis and Golf, requiring early financial investment was economically prohibitive for many Blacks until recently. Many consider the dominance of the Williams sisters to be offensive plainly because they are Black. In essence, without always using the racial epithet (although it comes up), high achievers in areas considered formerly white property are treated as "uppity niggers" encroaching on areas they do not belong. The treatment of President Obama by the Republican Congress--and by their example inspiring detractors around the country-- has been abhorrent behavior tantamount to conduct unbecoming a member of the U.S. Congress. It is as if the extreme hatred of blacks that had been swept under the rug, during the Civil Rights movements--on the heels of the murders of King, X and the Kennedy Brothers--has reared its ugly head and is becoming accepted again. Police brutality targeting Blacks, White Supremacists targeting Black Churches as they did a half century ago, are all becoming more common place in our times begging the question if we will ever go beyond this uncivilized adolescent stage as a nation--Unfortunately a nation that casts such a grand aura that its examples become a convenient blueprint for the modern development of a new Western European culture, where minorities of different origins (whether the North Africans in France or the Turks in Germany) become the targets of racially motivated violence and institutionalized racism.
This blog is dedicated to making sense of what we know about vocal technique, the psychology and spirituality of singing and issues that directly impact vocal pedagogy, performance and the effect of the art form on the broader social discourse...I hope with all my heart that this topic will become something that does not scare people but inspire us all to take a good look at what our art form means to us beyond our own opportunities and safety. We have to be willing to lose something to gain something better!